Volume 4, Issue 1: Document/ary

Refract’s fourth volume explores the entanglements between the document and the documentary as sources of information and forms of visual culture. Derived from the Latin docere (to instruct, to teach), the document can be a pedagogical tool, a disciplinary measure, or a literary and legal form that ascribes value to people and property and gives shape to cultural beliefs called laws. And yet, the document defies boundaries—it is at once literary, sociological, scientific, and historical while also being a material object with affective qualities.

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A black and white photograph of a circular, floral wreath with a ribbon.

Memory Matter(s)

Silvia De Giorgi

Cover image; light colored braided hair.

Neustadt a.d. Aisch

Marla Elisabeth Heid

A Catalog of American Things

Marisa J. Futernick

A trail of black, gray and white papers beginning with a paper that reads PERMEABLE PREAMBLE.

Authoritative Forms

Sayward Schoonmaker

Ground Maps of an Unknown Prospect

Elpitha Tsoutsounakis


VOICES OF VISUAL STUDIES